Marijuana Users Report High Rates Of Dependence In Global Drug Survey

Before reading this article, please understand that I am a strong supporter of legally obtained medical marijuana for the purpose of healing sicknesses and diseases and for the purpose of minimizing unrelenting chronic pain.  I am NOT a supporter of medical marijuana for recreational use, as this represents the purposeful desire of it’s users to ‘run away’ as is the case with other drugs.  For kids, it’s been proven as a gateway drug for addiction to both legal and illegal drugs as well as alcohol.

Here’s the article…

A large percentage of marijuana users around the world report signs of dependence, even as cannabis appears to be one of the safest and most commonly used drugs overall, according to the results of a survey released on Wednesday.

The findings are contained in the 2018 Global Drug Survey, a detailed questionnaire that compiled responses from more than 130,00 people in over 40 countries in the past year. One section of the survey used the “Severity of Dependence Scale,” or SDS, a popular tool that asks respondents five questions regarding impaired control over drug use and anxieties related to consumption and quitting.

Around 50,000 of the survey respondents reported having used marijuana in the last 12 months. Only alcohol and tobacco use were more common.

Of all cannabis users, 20.2 percent showed substantial signs of dependence, measured by affirmative answers to at least four of the five SDS questions. Crystal methamphetamine was the drug most closely associated with dependence, with nearly 25 percent of users scoring four or higher on the SDS.

Just over 20 percent of cannabis users around the world showed significant signs of dependence, according to the 2018 Gl

GLOBAL DRUG SURVEY
Just over 20 percent of cannabis users around the world showed significant signs of dependence, according to the 2018 Global Drug Survey.

A positive SDS score is not the same as a clinical diagnosis of dependence, Adam Winstock, a British addiction psychiatrist and founder of the Global Drug Survey, told HuffPost. But it does suggest that many marijuana users have considerable misgivings about their habits.

“You’ve got 20 percent of the people who are significantly worried about the impact of their use on their life,” said Winstock. “It’s a measure of subjective worry and concern, but those questions tap into things like how much you use, how often, your sense of control and your desire to stop.”

The responses to individual SDS questions offer a window into some of those feelings of dependence.

Cannabis was the substance most frequently associated with anxiety over the prospect of quitting, for example. Although nearly 74 percent of users said the idea of stopping “never or almost never” made them anxious, 19.7 percent said it “sometimes” did, with the rest reporting that it “often” or “always” did.

A total of 21.4 percent of marijuana users said it would be “quite difficult” for them to stop using, with 6.4 percent responding that it would be either “very difficult” or “impossible.” Around 72 percent said quitting would not be difficult.

Nearly 30 percent of cannabis users reported that their cannabis use was at least occasionally “out of control,” with 22.6 percent of respondents saying it was only “sometimes” an issue, 5.3 percent saying it was “often” an issue and 1.6 percent saying it was “always or nearly always” an issue.

Respondents to the 2018 Global Drug Survey were asked five questions on the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) to examin

GLOBAL DRUG SURVEY
Respondents to the 2018 Global Drug Survey were asked five questions on the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) to examine potential concerns regarding substance use.

The survey also sought to measure the overall safety of substances by asking respondents if they’d sought emergency medical treatment after using various drugs. Just 0.5 percent of all cannabis users reported seeking treatment after use, the second-lowest rate of any substance. Magic mushrooms appeared to be the safest recreational drug for the second year in a row, with just 0.2 percent of users saying they’d pursued medical intervention.

The cannabis dependence results were particularly surprising to Winstock, who said he would’ve expected to see around 10 to 15 percent of marijuana users report signs of dependence.

“You’re legalizing a drug that a fair number of people who use it have worries about themselves,” Winstock said. “The question is what do you do about that?”

The Global Drug Survey may hold some answers. Since 2014, the independent research company has partnered with medical experts and media groups to conduct an annual survey with the goal of making drug use safer through increased access to education and treatment resources.

Around 300,000 marijuana users have partaken in Global Drug Surveys over the years, said Winstock. Those respondents have consistently shown high levels of support for establishing government guidelines around safe marijuana use. Among cannabis users who have expressed a desire to use less frequently or quit entirely, many have said they’d like assistance in doing so. But very few end up seeking help.

You’re legalizing a drug that a fair number of people who use it have worries about themselves. The question is what do you do about that?Adam Winstock, founder of the Global Drug Survey

Taken together, the surveys suggest elected officials and the marijuana industry should be engaging in a more honest discussion about the risks associated with cannabis use so they can better address issues that may arise as laws are liberalized, said Winstock.

That advice may be particularly salient in the U.S., where a number of states are considering legalizing recreational marijuana in the face of growing public opposition to prohibition. Eight states, as well as Washington, D.C., have already legalized weed.

“Clearly arresting someone and giving them a criminal record for smoking a joint is a futile and pointless exercise and … nothing I’m suggesting is me saying cannabis is a bad drug and the government made a mistake,” said Winstock.

“What I’m saying is that at the point they regulated cannabis, they should have mandated a whole bunch of things that allowed it to be easier for people to reflect on their cannabis use and how it impacted on them and how to control their use,” he went on. “There should have been mandated health warnings and advice and an index of harm for different products.”

Among the 3,400 U.S. marijuana users surveyed this year, just under 25 percent expressed a desire to use less ― compared to 29.3 percent of users globally. Just over 25 percent reported getting high more than 300 days out of the past year, though that may not be reflective of broader marijuana trends, because the survey didn’t randomly sample users nationwide.

Sixteen percent of the American marijuana users who said they wanted to cut back also responded that they’d like help doing so. Nearly 50 percent of all U.S. users said they’d attempted to quit at some point, with 67 percent of those saying they’d tried in the previous year.

Winstock says it makes sense to increase access to harm reduction tools in order to reach those who say they want help with their dependence on cannabis. But broad support for this sort of comprehensive approach requires people on all sides to confront the fact that marijuana, like pretty much any drug, can lead to dependence with some frequency.

Stop for a moment and think about how you cannot become the tobacco industry or the alcohol industry.Adam Winstock, founder of the Global Drug Survey

Instead, the legalization debate has played out in a far more polarized fashion, with advocates often pushing back against decades of government anti-weed hysteria by claiming cannabis is a harmless drug, especially when compared to alcohol or tobacco.

In light of the cataclysmic failures of the nation’s war on drugs, there is plenty of reason to be tempted by that portrayal.

“It could just be that so many people are saying we’ve raised billions in taxes, saved thousands of hours of police time, saved loads of innocent young lives from having their careers ruined and being banged up in prison,” said Winstock. “Those are such huge wins that I could see people going, ‘That’s enough.’”

But just because the status quo has been so bad for so long and marijuana is less harmful than alcohol or tobacco ― legal drugs that kill more people each year than all illicit drugs combined ― doesn’t mean the push to legalize cannabis can’t learn from past mistakes.

For Winstock, it’s not too late for legal weed states and leaders in the marijuana industry to place more focus on public health.

“Stop for a moment and think about how you cannot become the tobacco industry or the alcohol industry,” said Winstock. “Be the best you can be, don’t just make the biggest profit. Be the most responsible industry you can, and that means be honest.”

Read the entire 2018 Global Drug Survey here.

The original article can be found by clicking here.


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Trump Paves Way For United States Marijuana Legalization

President Trump has been under fire for the past week. He’s battled liberals over Stormy Daniels. He’s battled Libertarians and non-interventionists over the current situation in Syria, a decision which could ultimately begin a proxy war with Russia and Iran. And he’s battled liberals over (insert anything).

But he may have just, once again, pulled the proverbial rabbit from the hat. And the big pharmaceutical companies aren’t going to be thrilled.

Trump has paved the way for U.S. marijuana legalization, a move that sent many of the top marijuana stockss kyrocketing and a number of Democrats applauding. President Trump will essentially withdraw federal objections to state marijuana legalization ambitions.

If Trump is to proceed, which does seem likely, this would be a huge reform of federal marijuana laws, which is currently prohibited. It means states would no longer need to contend with the federal government when implementing marijuana legislation.

Democrats like Colorado Senator, Cory Gardner, was thrilled by the announcement.

“Since the campaign, President Trump has consistently supported states’ rights to decide for themselves how best to approach marijuana,” U.S. Sen. Cory Gardner (D-CO) said in a statement. “Late Wednesday, I received a commitment from the President that the Department of Justice’s rescission of the Cole memo will not impact Colorado’s legal marijuana industry. Furthermore, President Trump has assured me that he will support a federalism-based legislative solution to fix this states’ rights issue once and for all.”

We’d be hard-pressed not to attempt to draw a conclusion between Trump’s move being a rather timely shot at current Attorney General, Jeff Sessions, who has been rumored to potentially be fired soon. Clearly, Gardner’s statement confirms that Trump’s held this ambition from day one, but I would imagine the timing is somewhat strategic on a multitude of levels.

But more bitter than Sessions is likely executives at pharmaceutical companies who have boldly donated to fighting against marijuana legalization in the United States. A chart posted by the Washington Post back in 2016 shows exactly why pharmaceutical companies would be a bit uneasy with impending marijuana legislations all throughout the United States.

trump marijuana

Those statistics are nothing short of stunning. The fact is, fully legalized marijuana would allow millions of people suffering from chronic pain to at least try marijuana as an option (legally). They’d not need a pricey prescription nor have to purchase from black market sources

The above article, in original format, can be found here.


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NEW STUDY SHOWS PSYCHOSIS + WEED IS A DANGEROUS MIX

Preface:  When you read this article, please understand that marijuana has THC which is a psycho-active substance that changes your control of your mind.  It would be a ‘given’ that someone who has a mental illness could go into a psychosis when given something that alters the mind.  You need a balanced mind to be able to tolerate THC.

man-hallucinating

People diagnosed with psychosis will probably have a longer, harder struggle to maintain their mental health if they’re regular marijuana users, British researchers report.

And those who just experienced their first episode of psychotic illness are 50 percent more likely to need subsequent hospitalization for their condition if they use marijuana, according to findings published online March 3 in the journal BMJ Open.

They also spend longer periods in the hospital, averaging 35 more days in mental health wards during a five-year period than those with psychosis who don’t use pot.

Finally, marijuana users don’t seem to respond to anti-psychotic medications as well as non-users, said lead researcher Rashmi Patel, a clinical lecturer with the Department of Psychosis Studies at King’s College London.

“We’re not entirely sure why that is, but it’s possible for whatever reason cannabis [marijuana] use makes it less likely that anti-psychotic treatment will work as well in people with psychotic disorders,” Patel said.

Psychosis occurs when a person loses touch with reality. They may hallucinate, suffer from delusions, or experience disorganized thoughts and speech.

Psychosis is a symptom of a larger medical problem, which can include mental health disorders like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Alcohol, prescription drugs, dementia, brain diseases or stroke also can cause psychotic symptoms, according to the U.S. National Institutes of Health.

Previous research has linked marijuana use to increased risk of psychosis, but not much is known about the effect pot can have on someone with an established psychotic disorder, Patel said.

For this study, Patel and his colleagues reviewed the electronic health records of slightly more than 2,000 people treated for a first episode of psychosis between 2006 and 2013. They were treated at the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, one of the largest providers of mental health services in Europe.

About 46 percent of the patients used marijuana. The researchers tracked all of the patients for up to five years to see if pot played a role in their ongoing mental health problems.

Pot users had an average of 1.8 hospital admissions up to five years after their first visit, compared to 1.2 admissions for non-users, the researchers found.

Marijuana users suffering psychosis were more likely than non-users to require compulsory detention in a hospital under England’s Mental Health Act, and to require more days of treatment in a hospital.

Those using pot also were more likely to have more prescriptions for different antipsychotics, and to require treatment with clozapine — a strong antipsychotic reserved for difficult-to-treat schizophrenia, the study authors said.

“We found a really quite significant association of cannabis use with poor outcomes,” Patel said. “It’s pretty clear there’s a strong link, although we can’t say what the mechanism is behind that.”

No one knows much about how psychosis works in the brain, and so it’s difficult to say why pot seems to make matters worse, said Dr. William Carpenter Jr., a professor of psychiatry and pharmacology at the University of Maryland School of Medicine.

It could be that marijuana is affecting the brain in some specific way that worsens psychosis, or the drug’s normal action simply might help make a person’s grasp on reality more tenuous, he said.

“It could be that anything that lowers our normal ability to tell what’s real from unreal would increase our symptoms,” Carpenter said.

Mitch Earleywine, an advisor to the marijuana legalization group NORML, said pot is one of any number of challenges to a hold on reality that should be avoided by people with psychosis.

“People with diagnosed psychotic disorders should stay away from cannabis. They should also stay away from alcohol, be careful about keeping their sleep cycle straight, avoid too much caffeine, carefully time their antihistamines, etc.,” said Earleywine, a professor of psychology at the State University of New York at Albany.

Patel and Carpenter agreed that since this was an observational study, it also could be that the reported link is coincidental and marijuana does not directly cause these poor outcomes.

Nonetheless, the study does “raise valid concerns about potential negative effects,” said Dr. Scott Krakower, assistant unit chief of psychiatry at Zucker Hillside Hospital in New Hyde Park, N.Y

Click here for article source.


 

Cannabis Over Chemo: Woman Says the Oil Cured Her Aggressive Breast Cancer in 5 Months

When Dee Mani, now 44, was diagnosed with breast cancer last March, her doctors suggested chemotherapy. She originally agreed to undergo one year of the treatment for her triple negative breast cancer – the deadliest type – but later had second thoughts. After seeing her sister suffer and die after undergoing chemotherapy for cancer, the mother of two set out to find an alternative.

She decided to take cannabis oil after researching natural cancer remedies online. She said she took one drop inside a capsule every night before going to bed because she didn’t care for the taste or texture of it on its own. Four months after her original diagnosis, her cancer had reduced significantly, and her doctors gave her the all-clear in August, just five months after starting cannabis oil.

She continues to take it to this day and says she plans to do so for the rest of her life as it has also helped her with problems like insomnia, a dust allergy, and back pain caused by slipped discs. She has also changed her diet and taken up meditation.

Lots of cannabis oil cancer treatment success stories

Stories like Mani’s are becoming less and less unusual as more people give cannabis oil a try. For example, a 33-year-old U.K. father, David Hibbitt cured what doctors deemed a “terminal” case of colon cancer with cannabis oil after radiation, chemotherapy and surgery all failed him. He had initially rejected the idea, but after being told he had just 18 months left to live, he was willing to try anything. Hibbitt used a high-potency variety known as Phoenix Tears (aka: Rick Simpson Oil or RSO) and is now cancer-free. He also said that his “pain just seemed to disappear.”

In another of the many stories that have emerged of cancer being successfully treated with cannabis oil, a three-year-old boy in Utah who was given just days to live by doctors because of leukemia is thriving thanks to the oil. After two months of chemo, Landon Riddle was refusing to eat and vomiting dozens of times a day. After researching cannabis oil treatment online, his family traveled to Colorado to gain access to it. After just a few days, his vomiting eased, his appetite returned, and he was showing signs of improvement. Months after the ordeal, he, too, was free of cancer.

Then there is the case of Darren Miller, who found out he had lung and pericardial heart sac cancer on the day he turned 50. Given just a year to live with chemotherapy, he and his wife decided to move to California, where he would be able to use cannabis oil. Seven months later, he was cancer-free. He believes it was the combination of chemotherapy and cannabis oil that cured his cancer.

Unfortunately, until there is more widespread acceptance of this type of treatment, it’s possible that some people who could benefit from it simply won’t be aware or willing to give it a try. Of course, there’s also the fact that should cannabis oil treatment go mainstream, Big Pharma would lose out on the billions of profits it makes from the cancer industry. While some people have found success using cannabis oil in conjunction with chemotherapy, others have found it to be effective on its own, illustrating that the most mainstream method isn’t necessarily the only or best way to solve a problem.

Click to original article HERE.


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Trump declares opioid crisis a ‘public health emergency’. Fentanyl to come off the market ‘immediately’!

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Calling it a “national shame” and “human tragedy,” President Trump on Thursday declared the opioid epidemic crippling American communities a “public health emergency” and pledged federal resources to help combat the growing problem.

“Addressing it will require all of our effort, and it will require us to confront the crisis in all of its real complexity,” Trump said during a speech in the East Room of the White House.

“As Americans, we cannot allow this to continue,” Trump said. “It is time to liberate our communities from the scourge. … We can be the generation that ends the opioid epidemic.”

Trump spoke to an audience at the White House that included family members of those affected by the opioid crisis, as well as several administration officials and elected leaders.

The president, who said “not one part of American society has been spared” from the crisis, stopped short of calling it a national emergency, something he previously promised he’d do. The announcement follows months of debate on how to tackle the problem.

‘We can be the generation that ends the opioid epidemic.’

– President Trump

Trump himself has gone on record more than once saying he would declare the crisis a national emergency. Such a designation would allow states to tap into the same federal funds typically reserved for natural disasters like hurricanes through the Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act.

Instead, Trump signed a presidential memo that directs acting Health and Human Services Secretary Eric Hargan to declare a public health emergency under the Public Health Services Act — which directs federal agencies to provide more grant money to combat the epidemic.

White House officials say the step helps cut through regulatory red tape and gives states more flexibility in how they use federal funds to fight the problem.

The designation will also allow changes such as expanded access to medical services in rural areas.

It doesn’t, however, create any additional funding.

The emergency declaration will last 90 days but can be renewed.

In 2015, 33,091 people died from opioid overdose, while 12.5 million people misused prescription opioids, according to the most recent statistics available from the Department of Health and Human Services.

The president on Thursday also revealed plans to take an “evil” opioid off the market immediately as well as the government’s intention to bring lawsuits against some of the drug makers, though he did not provide specifics. He also vowed to crack down on heroin imports from Mexico and fentanyl imports from China.

Pharmaceutical fentanyl is an opiate drug that’s up to 100 times more potent than morphine. In the past, drug dealers used it to spike the potency of the heroin they sold but traffickers are now selling fentanyl by itself.

Drug deaths involving fentanyl increased nearly 600 percent from 2014 to 2016, The Washington Post reported. There were 582 fatal overdoses linked to the synthetic drug in 2014. Last year, the number jumped to 3,946.

Trump also discussed the alcohol addiction that claimed his older brother Fred’s life in 1981.

“[Fred] had a problem with alcohol, and he would tell me, ‘Don’t drink, don’t drink,’” Trump said.

The president said watching his brother as well as other friends struggle with addiction is what set him on a no-drug, no-alcohol, no-cigarette path.

“There is nothing desirable about drugs,” Trump said. “They’re bad.”

Trump vowed to tackle the opioid crisis on the campaign trail, but critics claim his administration has been slow to act.

Trump created a presidential commission that in August recommended he declare the crisis a national emergency.

“Your declaration would empower your Cabinet to take bold steps and would force Congress to focus on funding and empowering the executive branch even further to deal with this loss of life,” the Commission on Combating Drug Addiction and the Opioid Crisis wrote. “It would also awaken every American to this simple fact: If this scourge has not found you or your family yet, without bold action by everyone, it soon will.”

However, White House officials told reporters Thursday morning that a national emergency declaration was not necessary in the case of opioids.

The public health emergency will “reorient all of the federal government and executive branch resources toward focusing on providing relief to this urgent need.”

Past instances of public health emergencies include the H1N1 influenza outbreak in 2009.

Since the commission released its report, Health and Human Services Secretary Tom Price has stepped down from his post while Trump’s pick for drug czar, Rep. Tom Marino, withdrew his nomination.

At an event at the Heritage Foundation earlier Thursday, Attorney General Jeff Sessions said it’s important to “reestablish the view that people should say no to drugs.”

“I do think this whole country needs to not be so lackadaisical about drugs,” he said. “Much of the addiction starts with marijuana. It is not a harmless drug.”

Click Here to Original Article


My comment on the above is that the addiction liability begins with Big Pharma and the doctors who prescribe them for anything else but to relieve extreme pain during the last days of life.  At that time, they were being misused by doctors as well.  I am a nurse who worked during those times.  A doctor would verabally say to a nurse, “sleep him through”.  That meant to overdose him with so much morphine so as to end life.  No – I never honored those doctors’ orders because my job is to heal, not kill; however, most nurses did it.  I believe God is the One to decide when one dies.  So, throughout time, it’s the doctors who should be made to be accountable for their sins by holding them as murderers and drug dealers.  Do you have an opinion on that?


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Long-Term Marijuana Use Changes Brain at the Cellular Level, Say Scientists

In March, long-term marijuana smoker Woody Harrelson surprised fans by announcing he was giving up his chronic pot habit, saying it made him “emotionally unavailable.” Likewise, in June, notorious stoner Miley Cyrus did the same, saying she “wanted to be really clear” while making her new album. Long-term pot smokers who have quit cite similar anecdotal evidence about the chronic effects of weed, but scientists have only recently begun understanding what, if anything, it actually does to the brain.

In a study on mice published Monday in the journal JNeurosci, scientists report that long-term marijuana use does indeed change the brain.

In their study, the researchers from Brigham Young University’s neuroscience department, led by Jeffrey Edwards Ph.D., focused on the brain’s ventral tegmental area (VTA), a region rich with the dopamine and serotonin receptors that comprise the brain’s reward system, looking at how its cells changed as the teen mice they studied received daily THC injections every day for a week. Researchers know that drugs of abuse, like opioids, alcohol, and marijuana, act on the VTA, and it’s thought that the active ingredients in these drugs stimulate the release of dopamine in this area, thereby triggering the flood of pleasure that drugs (as well as friendship and sex) provide — and creating cravings for more.

DEAUVILLE, FRANCE - SEPTEMBER 09: Woody Harrelson attends the naming ceremony of his dedicated beach cabana during the 43rd Deauville American Film Festival on September 9, 2017 in Deauville, France. (Photo by Francois Durand/Getty Images)
Woody Harrelson, a long-term marijuana user, said he quit because it made him emotionally unavailable.

In particular, they looked at a type of cell in the VTA known as a GABA cell that marijuana researchers hadn’t looked at before. The cells are named for the type of neurotransmitter they pick up — GABA, short for gamma-aminobutyric acid — which is well-known for its inhibitory properties. Imagine GABA as the high-strung friend who becomes anxious when the rest of the group has too much fun. When GABA is released in the brain, it regulates the levels of happy-making dopamine, making sure revelry doesn’t go overboard.

This friend is a bit of a buzzkill but seems to be necessary to prevent the brain from having too much of a good thing. But, as it turns out, GABA neurons can be incapacitated, too.

This working model shows how chronic exposure to the psychoactive component of marijuana may increase dopamine levels by altering the function of an inhibitory cell type, contributing to the drug's pleasurable and potentially addictive qualities.
Chronic marijuana use might lead to unnaturally high dopamine levels in the brain by messing with GABA neurons.

As the researchers observed these cells in teen mice over their THC-filled week, they saw that the ability of the GABA neurons to regulate dopamine faltered as the trial went on. In contrast, mice who only received a single injection of THC — the Bill Clintons of the group — didn’t show any changes in their GABA neurons, suggesting that the effects seen in the chronic users are a consequence of long-term marijuana use. Those changes led dopamine to linger in the VTA longer than usual, which caused an abnormally drawn-out feeling of reward. And too much of those pleasurable feelings, scientists have found, is what leads to addiction.

miley smoking weed
Miley Cyrus has put her pot-smoking days behind her so her brain would be more “clear.”

The team behind the study hopes that their findings can eventually be used to treat people with cannabis use disorder, defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 as a “problematic pattern of cannabis use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress.”

The term problematic, in this case, refers to a range of criteria largely centered around the inability of people to do what they need or want to do because of their addiction to the drug. It’s not clear whether Harrelson and Cyrus had been diagnosed with cannabis use disorder, but their reasons for quitting weed seem to line up.

Abstract:

The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is necessary for reward behavior with dopamine cells critically involved in reward signaling. Dopamine cells in turn are innervated and regulated by neighboring inhibitory GABA cells. Using whole cell electrophysiology in juvenile-adolescent GAD67-GFP male mice we examined excitatory plasticity in fluorescent VTA GABA cells. A novel CB1-dependent long-term depression (LTD) was induced in GABA cells that was dependent on metabotropic glutamate receptor 5, and cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). LTD was absent in CB1 knock-out mice, but preserved in heterozygous littermates. Chronic injections of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol occluded LTD compared to vehicle injections, however, a single exposure was insufficient to do so. Because Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol depresses GABA cell activity, downstream dopamine cells will be disinhibited and thus this could potentially result in increased reward. As synaptic modifications by drug of abuse are often tied to addiction, this data suggest a possible mechanism for the addictive effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in juvenile-adolescents, by potentially altering reward behavioral outcomes.

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